Shark P was first identified in Oslob, Cebu, in March The shark was highly resident to the provisioning site see Araujo et al. Individual P was first identified in Panaon Island in March and tagged on November 16th The shark was resighted there again in January following tag detachment.
Whale shark P was tagged when first identified in November and subsequently resighted tethering the tag in December The other 2 whale sharks tagged in Panaon Island were not resighted again. Tagged whale sharks were all juveniles, with a mean estimated length of 5. Whale sharks at Mindanao and TRNP were not resighted post-tagging, but three individuals were resighted at Panaon Island while the tags were still attached.
No obvious tagging-related damage was observed on the animals G Araujo, pers. Whale shark track lengths ranged from 86 to 2, km in length, with a mean of km. Mean horizontal speed was All whale sharks stayed in the Philippines over the tracking duration. None had been subsequently identified in other countries as of February Seven sharks tagged at Panaon Island transmitted most frequently from around the tagging location Fig. Two sharks P and P moved into the central Sulu Sea after having been tagged on consecutive days. Whale sharks tagged off Mindanao transmitted most frequently from the southern Bohol Sea, and none crossed the Surigao Strait Fig.
Satellite tracking of juvenile whale sharks in the Sulu and Bohol Seas, Philippines [PeerJ]
Whale sharks tagged at TRNP stayed in the Sulu Sea, with the exception of P that transmitted from northern Palawan and then lost its tag in the Pacific Ocean off eastern Mindanao following 20 days of no transmissions Fig. Temperature histograms going back to six days prior to tag detachment clearly indicate that this tag was still attached to the shark while it was in transit, but the tag did not transmit a location over that period.
We assume the shark swam through the Sulu and Bohol Seas into the Pacific. Sharks did not spend extended periods of time within the TRNP, with most locations transmitted from the shelf in the north of Palawan and from the shelf edge off Borneo within the Sulu Sea Fig. There were time-at-temperature records for all tags combined. Whale sharks spent the majority Overall, 5. Sharks only spent 2. Vertical movements, as inferred from TAT time-series, varied widely among individuals Supplementary Information for all plots.
Broadly, sharks spent more time at cooler temperatures when they were off the continental shelf, and during the night rather than during the day. As an example, shark P Fig. It then spent the next three months at the continental shelf edge and on the shelf off Borneo, where ventures into cooler temperatures were infrequent Fig. Bathymetric depth at transmission locations ranged from 1—8, m depth.
The tagged juvenile whale sharks all remained within the Philippines over the duration of tracking. Some whale sharks displayed both short-term site fidelity to their respective tagging areas, with transmissions received over consecutive days following tagging, and longer-term site fidelity was also demonstrated through photo-ID for some individuals. While national protection in the Philippines reduces the risk of direct anthropogenic threats to these sharks, a lack of information on female and mature sharks makes the population-level connectivity of whale sharks in Southeast Asia difficult to ascertain without the aid of other techniques, such as genetics and genomics.
Photo-ID has previously shown that whale sharks reside a mean c. Three whale sharks tagged in the Bohol Sea moved west into the Sulu Sea. A further two moved east to the eastern coast of Leyte and through the Surigao Strait. Although these movements occurred in April and May, when regional productivity typically remains relatively high Cabrera et al. TRNP comprises two atolls and a smaller reef system, all of which are adjacent to deep oceanic waters. Individual P 6. However, this phenomena, and the reason for their occurrence at TRNP, remain unclear. Whale sharks spent little time 5. The majority of their time was spent in the epipelagic zone based, on time-at-temperature TAT recordings.
The Sulu Sea reaches a min. These prey species undergo daily vertical migrations, staying in dark waters at depth during the day and moving towards the surface during the night to forage Brierley, Broadly sympatric mobulids capitalise on this behaviour and forage on euphausiids in the Bohol Sea during the night near the surface Rohner et al.
Why whale sharks appear to display a reverse pattern is unclear, and could benefit from a specific investigation through the use of archival tags capable of recording temperature and depth time series, as well as body position and acceleration, to provide more information on their behaviour. Juveniles tagged at TRNP, located at least km from the nearest major landmass, spent most of their time offshore.
Juveniles in the present study did spend part of their time in the open ocean, as observed elsewhere e. Satellite tagging of juvenile whale sharks in the Sulu and Bohol Seas has shed light into their short-term habitat use, over a mean of 64 days. This study has shown that juvenile sharks move quickly and widely through the Bohol and Sulu seas. Further work is underway to elucidate presence, seasonality and contemporary threats to whale sharks in the north Sulu Sea and southern Bohol Sea to complement the results presented herein.
There are some breeding records of Oriental Pratincole in Cambodia and in particular on other parts of the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve. Between 14 and 15 March, SEC travelled a distance of approximately km to 23km off the coast of the Vietnam-Cambodian border. SEC is probably feasting on the rich insect life in these fertile areas. The lack of onward movement so far suggests that this may be its breeding area. With all four Oriental Pratincoles left Australia from the north-west by the second week of March to reach Mainland South East Asia by the end of March, it is clear these birds are tracking much further to the west of all our other migratory waders once they have gone past Indonesia.
Around 6 April after approximately 7 days on Mainland Southeast Asia, SUN headed east and although we are unable to determine the exact route taken, this bird travelled approximately 2,km to a location in western Taiwan. What makes this flight fascinating is that had SUN taken a more direct route to this area from 80 Mile Beach, Western Australia, it may well have saved itself around 1, kilometers of air travel. Chiayi County, Taiwan, is where SUN was located from approximately 9 to 12 April, probably hawking for insects over the sugar cane, rice and corn fields that surround the Ba-Chang River.
This is near where our only previous report of a flagged Oriental Pratincole had occurred in Bad weather in Taiwan may have affected the performance of the satellite tag for a week, as the next location reading was on 18 April, km east of the Chiayi County location in Shoufeng township, Hualien County on the eastern coast of central Taiwan.
With only inaccurate location data available over the next two weeks we assume that SUN is most likely situated on the dry riverbeds somewhere along the Shoufeng and Hualien Rivers, where breeding attempts have occurred in previous years. Historic breeding records seem to show a preference for dry riverbanks in Eastern Taiwan and harvested agricultural fields in Western Taiwan.
Not to be outdone, the fourth Pratincole with a transmitter moves to India.
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This is approximately 1,km north-west of its Thailand location. Unlike the remote and isolated coastal plains of 80 Mile Beach, Kendrapara District, where SEP was located, consists of predominately agricultural allotments legumes, rice and jute , with many small villages nearby.
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However, a similarity does exist in the frequent weather events, including cyclones, floods and drought that occur in both regions. It seems to be making short local movements suggesting it is going to breed in that area. Not surprisingly, SEP is the first Australian-marked wader to be recorded in that region and the first Australian wader to be recorded breeding in India. Breeding populations are reported as occurring from Vietnam in the south to Russia in the north and from Pakistan in the west to Japan in the east.
Their adaptability and ability to utilise modified agricultural land and various water sources most likely contributes to their healthy populations.
Yet we have very little knowledge about the movements and breeding habits of Oriental Pratincoles over-wintering in Australia. With this project so far, we have gained a small but significant insight to their northward movements and their choice of breeding sites. By comparison, the Little Curlew results are not encouraging. Two of the transmitters have failed before the birds departed from Australia.
But we are getting some results from the other three birds. It then flew a further 2,km and landed on the island of Maluku, Indonesia on the morning of 7 April. Coombes Valley This is a delightful oak woodland to walk through — especially in spring and early summer.
Tracking turtle doves
Arne Heathland home to more than species. Get out, get busy and get wild! Pond dipping Pond dipping is something we can all do and it's loads of fun! Rock pooling Explore the little pools of amazing sea life that are left by the tide on the rocks around our coast. Home Our work Nature conservation Satellite tracking birds Tracking turtle doves.
Tracking turtle doves. Our study The aim of this study is to gather information on the migratory movements of turtle doves, and to identify important areas used en route and in Africa. The satellite tracking map shows you the live location of our birds. Meet the birds Bird has been given a name - Myrtle. Map view List view. View as list.
Follow the journey of these bird species in more detail by downloading their satellite data for your copy of Google Earth. Titan View as map. Get the routes for Google Earth. Find out more. Gallery Satellite tag number , tagged in Feltwell on 2 June Angela, satellite tag number , tagged in Frampton on 6 June Satellite tag number , tagged in Frampton on 6 June Satellite tag number , tagged in Lawford on 15 June Satellite tag number , tagged in Feltwell on 16 June Titan, tagged in Suffolk on 26 August Working in partnership This project wouldn't be possible without the generous support of all the volunteers and farmers and the following organisations: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford , Conservation Grade and Pensthorpe Conservation Trust - turtle doves.
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